Updated April 20, 2023 – The proliferation of marijuana and similar products in the last decade has led to a dramatic increase in reports of accidental exposure in pets. According to a 2019 report from the Animal Poison Control Center, there was a 765% increase in calls regarding cannabis ingestion. The Pet Poison Helpline reported a similar increase, up nearly 400% in cannabis-related phone calls over six years. Ask any veterinarian in emergency practice and they'll concur that ingestion of products containing cannabinoids is becoming more common.
It’s important for owners to know more about this growing problem, and to learn to recognize signs of toxicity and what to do in case of accidental ingestion or overdose.
Cannabis 101 – The Basics
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component found in marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD) is the primary non-psychoactive component of marijuana. In addition, there are synthetic cannabinoids (SCB) that are much more potent than traditional marijuana, and these are associated with more severe clinical signs in exposed pets.
Interestingly, marijuana was occasionally used in veterinary medicine until 1937, when the first of several laws penalizing veterinarians for prescribing the drug was passed. Subsequent legislation criminalized use and possession.
Despite these legal restrictions, interest in the medical properties of marijuana persisted. Studies teased apart the chemical composition of marijuana (these compounds are called cannabinoids) and identified specific receptors within the human body for these chemicals. In addition, scientists discovered that humans (and many animals) naturally produce cannabinoids within the body (endogenous cannabinoids), forming the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is involved in many bodily processes (via cell receptors) including:
- Pain perception
The location of endocannabinoid system receptors might not be a surprise when we consider some of the purported medical benefits of cannabis-derived products (as well as the psychoactive effects). The list also gives us insight into the signs of toxicity.
Signs of Toxicity in Pets
The clinical signs associated with marijuana and THC exposure most reported by pet owners and veterinarians include:
- Mental dullness and depression
- Unsteady gait
- Urinary incontinence or dribbling
- Increased sensitivity to noises or movement as well as touch
- Excess salivation
- Pupil dilation
Less commonly reported signs include agitation, aggression, seizures or coma.
Many of the clinical signs of marijuana and cannabinoid toxicity are similar to other types of toxins except for one – a sudden onset of urinary incontinence. The presence of urinary incontinence can be an important clue for owners (and veterinarians) that a pet was exposed to marijuana or THC.
Cannabidiol, or CBD, rarely is associated with any clinical signs in cases of accidental exposure or overdose. Lethargy and depression, staggering and agitation were the most common problems reported by owners in these cases.
The good news is fatalities are rare for pets ingesting marijuana, THC products or CBD products. Some pets need hospitalization for supportive care, but the vast majority of pets recover uneventfully.
It is important for owners to seek veterinary care in cases of known ingestion or if a pet is acting strangely without a known exposure, since many of the clinical signs associated with marijuana/THC/CBD toxicity can mimic more serious types of poison exposure.
Diagnosis and Treatment
No easily accessible tests for marijuana/THC/CBD/SCB are available for veterinary screening. The human urine drug screening test isn’t reliable for use in pets. More advanced testing can be used, but it’s costly and not easily available.
Unless there is a known exposure, diagnostics often focus on ruling in or out other toxicities with similar signs, including alcohol, ethylene glycol (anti-freeze), illicit drugs, or human medications such as opioids, tranquilizers or sedatives and antidepressants.
Treatment is based on clinical signs as well as the time elapsed from ingestion (if known).
Inducing vomiting is a potential treatment if the time from ingestion is within 60 minutes and the pet is alert. Activated charcoal can be given orally as well in these pets to bind any material in the stomach - again, this treatment should be only used in alert pets.
In pets that are depressed, lethargic and showing neurologic signs (and are therefore in greater danger of aspirating vomit into their lungs), supportive care is a better option.
Preventing Exposure Is Key
As always, prevention is easier and better for your pet’s well-being than treatment. Keeping products intended for humans well out of the reach of pets is important.
Owners need to be especially vigilant when it comes to edibles, which are highly palatable for our pets. Consumption of edible products is the most common route of toxicity for our pets as reported by poison control hotlines and surveys of practicing veterinarians. Of special concern are edibles that contain chocolate, which also is toxic to pets at high doses.
Finally, owners should always consult with their veterinarian before giving a pet any cannabinoid product, including CBD. While studies are underway investigating product use in pets, there is little scientific evidence as to the benefits (and possible side effects) of cannabinoids for cats, dogs and even birds. Until science catches up, proceed with caution with guidance from your veterinarian.
If you're interested in learning more about the medical use of CBD in pets, check out our blog featuring the latest information on this compound. For more detailed information, the 2020 American Veterinary Medical Association report is a complete guide on the current state of cannabis in veterinary medicine.